|DNS: Fed Activity / NTIA|
- NTIA & Fed Activity
- Root Servers
- - .us
- - -.kids.us
- - .gov
- - .edu
- - .mil
- - .xxx
- IP Numbers
- - IPv6
- AntiCybersquatter Consumer Protection Act
- Gripe Sites
- Truth in Domain Names
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Derived From: Lennard G. Krugarm, Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service May 23, 2014
The United States government has no statutory authority over ICANN or the domain name system. However, because the Internet evolved from a network infrastructure created by the Department of Defense, the U.S. government originally owned and operated (primarily through private contractors) many of the key components of network architecture that enabled the domain name system to function. In the early 1990s, the National Science Foundation (NSF) was given a lead role in overseeing domain names used in the civilian portion of the Internet (which at that time was largely comprised of research universities). By the late 1990s, ICANN was created, the Internet had expanded into the commercial world, and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the Department of Commerce (DOC) assumed the lead role.
A 1998 Memorandum of Understanding between ICANN and the DOC initiated a process intended to transition technical DNS coordination and management functions to a private-sector not-for-profit entity. While the DOC plays no role in the internal governance or day-to-day operations of ICANN, the U.S. government, through the DOC/NTIA, retains a role with respect to the DNS via three separate contractual agreements. These are:
- a 2009 Affirmation of Commitments (AoC) between DOC and ICANN;
- a contract between ICANN and DOC to perform various technical functions such as allocating IP address blocks, editing the root zone file, and coordinating the assignment of unique protocol numbers; and
- a cooperative agreement between DOC and VeriSign to manage and maintain the official DNS root zone file.
By virtue of those three contractual agreements, the United States government—through DOC/NTIA—exerts a legacy authority and stewardship over ICANN, and arguably has more influence over ICANN and the DNS than other national governments.
While NTIA is the lead agency overseeing domain name issues, other federal agencies maintain a specific interest in the DNS that may affect their particular missions. For example, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) seeks to protect consumer privacy on the Internet, the Department of Justice (DOJ) addresses Internet crime and intellectual property issues, and the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security address cybersecurity issues. However, none of these agencies have legal authority over ICANN or the running of the DNS.
Affirmantion of Committments
On September 30, 2009, DOC and ICANN announced agreement on an Affirmation of Commitments (AoC) to “institutionalize and memorialize” the technical coordination of the DNS globally and by a private-sector-led organization.5 The AoC replaced the previous Memorandum of Understanding and subsequent Joint Project Agreement between DOC and ICANN. It has no expiration date and would conclude only if one of the two parties decided to terminate the agreement.
Under the AoC, ICANN committed to remain a not-for-profit corporation “headquartered in the United States of America with offices around the world to meet the needs of a global community.” According to the AoC, “ICANN is a private organization and nothing in this Affirmation should be construed as control by any one entity.” Specifically, the AoC called for the establishment of review panels which will periodically make recommendations to the ICANN Board in four areas: ensuring accountability, transparency, and the interests of global Internet users (panel includes the Administrator of NTIA); preserving security, stability, and resiliency; impact of new generic top level domains (gTLDs); and WHOIS policy.
On December 31, 2010, the Accountability and Transparency Review Team (ATRT) released its recommendations to the Board for improving ICANN’s transparency and accountability with respect to Board governance and performance, the role and effectiveness of the GAC and its interaction with the Board, public input and policy development processes, and review mechanisms for Board decisions.7 At the June 2011 meeting in Singapore, the Board adopted all 27 ATRT recommendations. According to NTIA, “the focus turns to ICANN management and staff, who must take up the challenge of implementing these recommendations as rapidly as possible and in a manner that leads to meaningful and lasting reform.”
DOC Contract and Cooperative Agreement with ICANN and Verisign
A contract between DOC and ICANN—specifically referred to as the “IANA9 functions contract”—authorizes ICANN to manage the technical underpinnings of the DNS. Specifically, the contract allows ICANN to perform various critical technical functions such as allocating IP address blocks, editing the root zone file, and coordinating the assignment of unique protocol numbers. Additionally, and intertwined with the IANA functions, a cooperative agreement between DOC and VeriSign (the company that operates the .com and .net registries) authorizes VeriSign to manage and maintain the official root zone file that is contained in the Internet’s root servers that underlie the functioning of the DNS.10 By virtue of these legal agreements, the DOC approves changes or modifications made to the root zone file (changes, for example, such as adding a new top level domain).
On July 2, 2012, NTIA announced the award of the most recent (and current) IANA contract to ICANN through September 30, 2015 (with an option to extend the contract through September 2019). The IANA contract continues to specify that the contractor must be a wholly U.S. owned and operated firm or a U.S. university or college; that all primary operations and systems shall remain within the United States; and that the U.S. government reserves the right to inspect the premises, systems, and processes of all facilities and components used for the performance of the contract.
NTIA Intent to Transition Stewardship of the DNS
The IANA functions contract with ICANN and the cooperative agreement with Verisign give NTIA the authority to maintain a stewardship and oversight role with respect to ICANN and the domain name system. On March 14, 2014, NTIA announced its intention to transition its stewardship role and procedural authority over key domain name functions to the global Internet multistakeholder community. If a satisfactory transition can be achieved, NTIA will let its IANA functions contract with ICANN expire on September 30, 2015 [Although the contract expires on September 30, 2015, it contains two option periods that can extend it through September 30, 2019 ]
As a first step, NTIA is asking ICANN to convene interested global Internet stakeholders (both from the private sector and governments) to develop a proposal to achieve the transition. Specifically, NTIA expects ICANN to work collaboratively with parties directly affected by the IANA contract, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Society (ISOC), the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), top level domain name operators, Verisign, and other interested global stakeholders. In October 2013, many of these groups—specifically, the Internet technical organizations responsible for coordination of the Internet infrastructure—had called for “accelerating the globalization of ICANN and IANA functions, towards an environment in which all stakeholders, including all governments, participate on an equal footing.”
NTIA has stated that it will not accept any transition proposal that would replace the NTIA role with a government-led or an intergovernmental organization solution.
In addition, NTIA told ICANN that the transition proposal must have broad community support and address the following four principles:
- support and enhance the multistakeholder model;
- maintain the security, stability, and resilience of the Internet DNS;
- meet the needs and expectation of the global customers and partners of the IANA services; and
- maintain the openness of the Internet.
Supporters of the transition argue that by transferring its remaining authority over ICANN and the DNS to the global Internet community, the U.S. government will bolster its continuing support for the multistakeholder model of Internet governance, and that this will enable the United States to more effectively argue and work against proposals for intergovernmental control over the Internet. Supporters also point out that the U.S. government and Internet stakeholders have, from the inception of ICANN, envisioned that U.S. authority over IANA functions would be temporary, and that the DNS would eventually be completely privatized.15 According to NTIA, this transition is now possible, given that “ICANN as an organization has matured and taken steps in recent years to improve its accountability and transparency and its technical competence.”
Those opposed, skeptical, or highly cautious about the transition point out that NTIA’s role has served as a necessary “backstop” which has given Internet stakeholders confidence that the integrity and stability of the DNS is being sufficiently overseen. Critics assert that in the wake of the Edward Snowden NSA revelations, foreign governments might gain more support internationally in their continuing attempts to exert intergovernmental control over the Internet, and that any added intergovernmental influence over the Internet and the DNS would be that much more detrimental to the interests of the United States if NTIA’s authority over ICANN and the DNS were to no longer exist. Another concern regards the development of the transition plan and a new international multistakeholder entity that would provide some level of stewardship over the domain name system. Critics are concerned about the risks of foreign governments— particularly those favoring censorship of the Internet—gaining influence over the DNS through the transition to a new Internet governance mechanism that no longer is subject to U.S. government oversight.
Derived From: Lennard Kruger, Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues, Congressional Research Service p 3 (Oct. 28, 2009)
Buildup to the AoC
Various Internet stakeholders disagreed as to whether DOC should maintain control over ICANN after the impending JPA expiration on September 30, 2009. Many U.S. industry and public interest groups argued that ICANN was not yet sufficiently transparent and accountable, that U.S. government oversight and authority (e.g., DOC acting as a "steward" or "backstop" to ICANN) was necessary to prevent undue control of the DNS by international or foreign governmental bodies, and that continued DOC oversight was needed until full privatization is warranted. On the other hand, many international entities and groups from countries outside the United States argued that ICANN had sufficiently met conditions for privatization, and that continued U.S. government control over an international organization was not appropriate. In the 110th Congress, Senator Snowe introduced S.Res. 564 which stated the sense of the Senate that although ICANN had made progress in achieving the goals of accountability and transparency as directed by the JPA, more progress was needed.
On April 24, 2009, NTIA issued a Notice of Inquiry (NOI) seeking public comment on the upcoming expiration of the JPA between DOC and ICANN.10 According to NTIA, a mid-term review showed that while some progress had been made, there remained key areas where further work was required to increase institutional confidence in ICANN. These areas included long-term stability, accountability, responsiveness, continued private-sector leadership, stakeholder participation, increased contract compliance, and enhanced competition. NTIA asked for public comments regarding the progress of transition of the technical coordination and management of the DNS to the private sector, as well as the model of private-sector leadership and bottom-up policy development which ICANN represents. Specifically, the NOI asked whether sufficient progress had been achieved for the transition to take place by September 30, 2009, and if not, what should be done.
On June 4, 2009, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, and the Internet, held a hearing examining the expiration of the JPA and other issues. Most Members of the Committee expressed the view that the JPA (or a similar agreement between DOC and ICANN) should be extended. Subsequently, on August 4, 2009, Majority Leadership and Majority Members of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce sent a letter to the Secretary of Commerce urging that rather than replacing the JPA with additional JPAs, the DOC and ICANN should agree on a "permanent instrument" to "ensure that ICANN remains perpetually accountable to the public and to all of its global stakeholders." According to the committee letter, the instrument should: ensure the permanent continuance of the present DOC-ICANN relationship; provide for periodic reviews of ICANN performance; outline steps ICANN will take to maintain and improve its accountability; create a mechanism for implementation of the addition of new gTLDs and internationalized domain names; ensure that ICANN will adopt measures to maintain timely and public access to accurate and complete WHOIS information; and include commitments that ICANN will remain a not-for-profit corporation headquartered in the United States.
Critical Elements of the AoC
Under the AoC, ICANN commits to remain a not-for-profit corporation "headquartered in the United States of America with offices around the world to meet the needs of a global community." According to the AoC, "ICANN is a private organization and nothing in this Affirmation should be construed as control by any one entity."
Specifically, the AoC calls for the establishment of review panels which will periodically make recommendations to the ICANN Board in four areas:
- Ensuring accountability, transparency and the interests of global Internet users-the panel will evaluate ICANN governance and assess transparency, accountability, and responsiveness with respect to the public and the global Internet community. The panel will be composed of the Chair of ICANN's Government Advisory Committee (GAC), the Chair of the Board of ICANN, the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information of the Department of Commerce (i.e., the head of NTIA), representatives of the relevant ICANN Advisory Committees and Supporting Organizations, and independent experts. Composition of the panel will be agreed to jointly by the Chair of the GAC and the Chair of ICANN.
- Preserving security, stability, and resiliency-the panel will review ICANN's plan to enhance the operational stability, reliability, resiliency, security, and global interoperability of the DNS. The panel will be composed of the Chair of the GAC, the CEO of ICANN, representatives of the relevant Advisory Committees and Supporting Organizations, and independent experts. Composition of the panel will be agreed to jointly by the Chair of the GAC and the CEO of ICANN.
- Impact of new gTLDs-starting one year after the introduction of new gTLDs, the panel will periodically examine the extent to which the introduction or expansion of gTLDs promotes competition, consumer trust, and consumer choice. The panel will be composed of the Chair of the GAC, the CEO of ICANN, representatives of the relevant Advisory Committees and Supporting Organizations, and independent experts. Composition of the panel will be agreed to jointly by the Chair of the GAC and the CEO of ICANN.
- WHOIS policy-the panel will review existing WHOIS policy and assess the extent to which that policy is effective and its implementation meets the legitimate needs of law enforcement and promotes consumer trust. The panel will be composed of the Chair of the GAC, the CEO of ICANN, representatives of the relevant Advisory Committees and Supporting Organizations, independent experts, representatives of the global law enforcement community, and global privacy experts. Composition of the panel will be agreed to jointly by the Chair of the GAC and the CEO of ICANN.
NTIA's Joint Project Agreement with ICANN Comments Due Feb. 15, 2008 Information on Administrative Procedure
For Immediate Release : October 29, 2007: Commerce's National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) today announced that it will consult with interested stakeholders regarding the mid-term review of the Joint Project Agreement (JPA) between the Department and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). NTIA will soon release a Notice of Inquiry (NOI) requesting comments to be due February 15, 2008.
"It is important that all interested stakeholders have an opportunity to directly share their views on ICANN during the JPA mid-term review," said NTIA Administrator John M. R. Kneuer at ICANN's 30th meeting. "We feel strongly that our review must be informed by your experiences with ICANN and perspectives regarding its evolution."
Kneuer also congratulated outgoing ICANN Chairman Vint Cerf on his tenure. "Vint's technical expertise, business experience, and global stature have been exceptionally well suited to the unique enterprise that ICANN represents," said Kneuer. "Over the course of the past eight years, ICANN's model of full participation by all interested stakeholders in decisions and policy making has progressively evolved and strengthened."
NTIA and ICANN signed the JPA on September 29, 2006. The JPA has a three-year term and provides for the Department to conduct a mid-term review of the agreement. The Department will consult with interested stakeholders to assist in conducting this mid-term review of ICANN's progress in meeting the responsibilities outlined in the JPA and by ICANN's Board. When published, the full text of the NOI will be available online at www.ntia.doc.gov .
NTIA is responsible for the development of domestic and international telecommunications policy for the Executive Branch.
- ICANN MOU Process See DNS History
- Commerce's NTIA Seeks Public Comments Regarding Joint Project Agreement with ICANN, NTIA 10/31/2007
- New NTIA ICANN Contract, NTIA 3/19/03
- Apr 2002 "The Department of Commerce exercises an option in its contract with ICANN regarding the technical functions of the domain name system, extending it through September 2002." [GAO02]
- U.S. Will Renew ICANN's Authority, Wash Post 9/16/02
- Will ICANN Continue?, ABC 8/14/02
- Sept 2001 " The Department of Commerce and ICANN agree to extend the MOU through September 2002 and the cooperative research and development agreement through June 2002 (amendment 4)." [GAO02]
- May 2001 " ICANN and the Department of Commerce approve MOU amendment 3, which conforms the MOU with the Department's new agreement with VeriSign (formerly Network Solutions.)" [GAO02]
- Mar 2001 "The Department of Commerce enters into a second contract with ICANN regarding technical functions of the domain name system." [GAO02]
- Feb 2000 " The Department of Commerce contracts with ICANN to perform certain technical management functions related to the domain name system, such as address allocation and root zone coordination." [GAO02]
- Nov 1999 " ICANN and the Department of Commerce approve MOU amendment 1 to reflect the roles of ICANN and Network Solutions, Inc." [GAO02]
- June 1999 " ICANN and the Department of Commerce enter into a cooperative research and development agreement to study root server stability and security. The study is intended to result in a final report by September2000." [GAO02]
- Nov 1998 " The Department of Commerce and ICANN enter into an MOU that states the parties will jointly design, develop, and test the methods and procedures necessary to transfer domain name system management to ICANN. The MOU is set to expire in September 2000." [GAO02]
- Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Department of Commerce and ICANN Nov. 25, 1998
Requests for Comments
- Management of Internet Domain Names and Addresses, a statement of policy. June 5, 1998
- Statement of Policy, Management of Internet Names and Addresses, 63 Fed. Reg. 31741(1998)
- Statement of Policy -- HTML Version
- Statement of Policy -- WordPerfect Version
- Press Conference Remarks by Becky Burr -- HTML Version
- Press Conference Remarks in RealAudio (Note: 2.4 MB RealAudio file is also available.)
- Proposal to Improve Technical Management of Internet Names and Addresses ("Green Paper" 1/30/98)
• Federal Register Publication (HTML) February 20, 1998
• Federal Register Publication (.txt) February 20, 1998
• Comments Received in the 1/30/98 ("Green Paper") Proceeding
• "Green Paper" Discussion Draft (HTML) January 30, 1998
• "Green Paper" Discussion Draft (.TXT) January 30, 1998
• "Green Paper" Discussion Draft (WordPerfect .zip version) January 30, 1998
- Request for Comments on the Registration and Administration of Internet Domain Names, Notice and Comments July 1, 1997
- NTIA Website: Management of Internet Names and Addresses.
- U.S. principles on the Internet’s Domain Name and Addressing System., NTIA 7/5/2005
- Presidential Directive on Electronic Commerce : Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies July 1, 1997 ("I direct the Secretary of Commerce to support efforts to make the governance of the domain name system private and competitive and to create a contractually based self-regulatory regime that deals with potential conflicts between domain name usage and trademark laws on a global basis.")
- STATEMENT OF FCC COMMISSIONER AJIT PAI ON INTERNET GOVERNANCE. STMT. News Media OCAP TXT
- Joint Statement on Internet Governance Forum, NTIA 11/9/2007
- Senior Energy and Commerce Members Urge Evans To Consider Recommendations for ICANN Reform Letter to Donald Evans U.S. Department of Commerce June 20, 2002
- Energy and Commerce Committee to Secretary Evans: Keep Tabs on ICANN's Reform Efforts Letter to Donald Evans U.S. Department of Commerce March 13, 2002
- Commerce Secretary Don Evans Announces New GetTech Campaign Sponsor, Praises Commitment to Students
- Statement by Department of Commerce General Counsel Ted Kassinger Regarding the Proposed Verisign-Icann Agreement
- Statement by Department of Commerce General Counsel Ted Kassinger Regarding ICANN Accreditation of New Domain Names, DOC 5/16/01
- Internet Corporation For Assigned Names And Numbers (ICANN) Process For Selecting New Internet Top Level Domain Names (Tlds) Letter to Donald Evans U.S. Department of Commerce August 6, 2001
- Renegotiation Of A 1999 Contract Between Verisign And The Internet Corporation For Assigned Names And Numbers ("ICANN"). Letter to Donald Evans U.S. Department of Commerce March 30, 2001
- “Internet Governance Progress After ICANN 53” Before the Subcommittee on Communications and Technology Committee on Energy and Commerce United States House of Representatives Hearing entitled “Internet Governance Progress After ICANN 53” July 8, 2015
- Testimony of Assistant Secretary Strickling on September 23, 2009 House Judiciary "Expansion of Top Level Domains and its Effects on Competition"
- June 4, 2009 House Energy and Commerce "Oversight of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)"
- NTIA's ICANN Testimony, June 4, NTIA 6/5/2009
- NTIA Public Meeting on ICANN Review, NTIA 1/24/2008
- ICANN Internet Governance: Is It Working ? Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer Protection September 21, 2006 2322 Rayburn House Office Building 2:00 PM
- September 20, 2006 Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation "Internet Governance: the Future of ICANN"
- July 18, 2006 House Financial Services "ICANN and the WHOIS Database: Providing Access to Protect Consumers from Phishing"
- June 7, 2006 House Small Business "Contracting the Internet: Does ICANN Create a Barrier to Small Business?" Testimony of John Jeffrey to the House Committee on Small Business United States House of Representatives
- September 30, 2004 Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation "ICANN Oversight and Security of Internet Root Servers and the Domain Name System (DNS)"
- Deputy Assistant Secretary John Kneuer testified before the Senate Subcommittee on Communications on the progress of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between ICANN and the Department, NTIA 9/30/2004
- May 6, 2004 House Energy and Commerce "The 'Dot Kids' Internet Domain: Protecting Children Online"
- U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation July 31, 2003 “Internet Corporation for Assigned Names
and Numbers (ICANN)”
- September 4, 2003 House Judiciary "Internet Domain Name Fraud - the U.S. Government's Role in Ensuring Public Access to Accurate WHOIS Data"
- September 12, 2002 Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation "Dot Kids Implementation and Efficiency Act of 2002"
- Senate Jun 12 2:30 p.m. Commerce, Science, and Transportation Science, Technology, and Space Subcommittee To hold hearings to examine Internet corporations for assigned names and numbers. SR-253, Senate 6/5/02
- May 22, 2002 House Judiciary "The Accuracy and Integrity of the WHOIS Database"
- Nov 1 The Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet legislative hearing on H.R. 2417, the "Dot Kids Name Act of 2001." Witnesses will be by invitation only., 10:00 a.m. in 2123 RHOB
- November 1, 2001 House Energy and Commerce "Dot Kids Name Act of 2001"
- July 12, 2001 House Judiciary "The Whois Database: Privacy and Intellectual Property Issues"
- Thursday, March 22nd House Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet and Intellectual Property 10:00 a.m. in 2141 RHOB Oversight Hearing On "ICANN, NEW gTLDS, and the Protection of Intellectual Property.", Cong 3/21/01
- Testimony of Louis Touton Vice President and General Counsel Before the House Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet, and Intellectual Property "ICANN, New gTLDs, and the Protection of Intellectual Property" March 22, 2001
- Feb. 14, 2001 9:30 a.m. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation To hold hearings to examine the structure of ICANN, the organization in charge of creating and distributing Internet domain names, and the effort underway to expand available domain names. SR-253 , Senate
- Members will examine the structure of ICANN, the organization in charge of creating and distributing Internet domain names, and the effort underway to expand available domain names. Senator Conrad Burns (R-MT), Chairman of the Communications Subcommittee, will preside.
Following is the tentative witness list (not necessarily in order of appearance):
Mr. Michael Roberts , CEO, ICANN
Mr. Karl Auerbach, Member, ICANN Board of Directors
Mr. A. Michael Froomkin , Professor of Law, University of Miami School of Law
Mr. Roger Cochetti , Senior Vice President, Policy, VeriSign Network Solutions
Mr. Kenneth M. Hansen, Director, Corporate Development, NeuStar, Inc.
Mr. Brian Cartmell , Chairman and CEO, eNIC Corporation
Submitted for the Record:
Kent Crispin , Computer Scientist, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
The Domain Name Rights Coalition and Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
Ray Fassett , Think Right Co.
Leah Gallegos , President, Atlantic Root Network, Inc.
Paul Garrin , CEO, Name.Space, Inc.
Paul Stahura , President, Group One Registry, Inc.
Michael Sondow , International Congress of Independent Internet Users
- Is ICANN's New Generation Of Internet Domain Name Selection Process Thwarting Competition ? Hearing Before The Subcommittee On Telecommunications And The Internet Of The Committee On Energy And Commerce House Of Representatives One Hundred Seventh Congress First Session February 8, 2001 Real Audio | Berkman Center
- Testimony of Dr. Vinton G. Cerf , Chairman of ICANN Before the House Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet February 8, 2001
- House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Chairman Tauzin Calls for Hearings on ICANN Jan 12, 2001
- Prepared Testimony of Michael M. Roberts Interim President and Chief Executive Officer Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers July 28, 1999
- July 22, 1999 Senate Judiciary "Cybersquatting and Internet Consumer Protection"
- Domain Name System Privatization: Is ICANN Out of Control? Testimony before the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations . July 22, 1999
- Statement for the Record Andrew J. Pincus General Counsel, Department of Commerce Before the Subcommittee on Oversight & Investigations House Commerce Committee July 22, 1999
- Grover Norquist , President of Americans for Tax Reform, Testimony before the House Commerce Committee, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations On Domain Name System Privatization July 22, 1999
- Testimony of Esther Dyson to Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations
- Transferring the Domain Name System to the Private Sector: Private Sector Implementation of the Administration's Internet White Paper. Testimony before U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Subcommittee on Basic Research and Subcommittee on Technology Oct 7, 1998
- Testimony before the Subcommittee on Basic Research and Subcommittee on Technology of the Committee on Science on the subject of Internet Domain Names, October 7, 1998 Rayburn House Office Building by Ronda Hauben
- The Future of the Domain Name System - Testimony before the U.S. Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade, and Consumer Protection, Hearings on Electronic Commerce Jun 10, 1998
- Joint Hearing On The Domain Name System: Where Do We Go From Here ? Tuesday, March 31, 1998 U.S. House Of Representatives, Committee on Science, Subcommittee on Basic Research, and Subcommittee on Technology, Washington, DC.
- Testimony before the Subcommittee on Basic Research of the Committee on Science on the subject of Internet Domain Names, Rayburn House Office Building, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. 20515, by Dr. Robert E. Kahn , President and CEO Corporation for National Research Initiatives March 31, 1998
- February 21, 1998 House Judiciary "Internet Domain Name Trademark Protection"
- November 5, 1997 House Judiciary "Internet Domain Name Trademark Protection"
- INTERNET DOMAIN NAMES , PART II TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 1997 U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Science, Subcommittee on Basic Research, Washington , DC .
- INTERNET DOMAIN NAMES , PART I THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1997 U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Science, Subcommittee on Basic Research, Washington , DC .
- Testimony of Larry Irving Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information before the House Committee on Science Subcommittee on Basic Research September 25, 1997
- Congressional Research Services
- Lennard G Kruger, Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues, CRS-7-5700 (June 10, 2014)
- Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues, CRS Report to Congress July 14, 2006
- Signposts in Cyberspace: the Domain Name System and Internet Navigation, CSTB 2005
- INTERNET MANAGEMENT Limited Progress on Privatization Project Makes Outcome Uncertain Statement of Peter Guerrero Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues GAO-02-805T June 12, 2002
- GAO Report on Department of Commerce: Relationship with ICANN (July 7, 2000)