Federal Internet Law & Policy
An Educational Project
Root Servers Dont be a FOOL; The Law is Not DIY
Internet Addresses
- History
- NTIA & Fed Activity
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- ccTLDs
- - .us
- -
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- - .gov
- - .edu
- - .mil
- - .xxx
- IP Numbers
- - IPv6
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Telephone Addresses

"Across the world, the domain name system has 13 sets of root servers, which form a network of hundreds of servers that play a central role in the Internet’s system for finding a particular website. Each of these servers has a copy of a file called the authoritative root zone file, which is a type of “address book” for the top level (and only the top level) of the domain name system—listing, among other things, the IP addresses of all top- level domains’ name servers. " GAO-15-642 Internet Management, p. 6.

Server Operator Locations IP Addr Home
A Verisign Naming and Directory Services Dulles VA IPv4:
IPv6: yes
B Information Sciences Institute  USC Marina Del Rey CA IPv4:
IPv6: 2001:478:65::53
C Cogent Communications Herndon VA; Los Angeles;
New York City; Chicago 2149
D Uni Maryland College Park MD 27
E NASA Ames Research Center Mountain View CA 297
F Internet Software Consortium Ottawa; Palo Alto; San Jose CA;
New York City; San Francisco;
Madrid; Hong Kong; Los Angeles;
Rome; Auckland; Sao Paulo;
Beijing; Seoul; Moscow; Taipei;
Dubai; Paris; Singapore; Brisbane;
Toronto; Monterrey; Lisbon;
Johannesburg; Tel Aviv; Jakarta;
Munich; Osaka; Prague;
Amsterdam; Barcelona
IPv6: 2001:500::1035
G DoD Network Information Center Vienna VA 568
H US Army Research Lab Aberdeen MD IPv4:
IPv6: 2001:500:1::803f:235
I Autonomica/NORDUnet Stockholm; Helsinki; Milan;
London; Geneva; Amsterdam;
Oslo; Bangkok; Hong Kong;
Brussels; Frankfurt;
Ankara; Bucharest;
Chicago; Washington DC;
Tokyo; Kuala Lumpur;
Palo Alto; Jakarta;
Wellington; Johannesburg;
Perth; San Francisco;
New York; Singapore;
Miami; Ashburn (US);
Mumbai 29216
J Verisign Naming and Directory Services Dulles VA (4 locations); Mountain View CA;
Seattle WA; Atlanta GA; Los Angeles CA;
Miami FL; Sunnyvale CA;
Amsterdam; Stockholm; London;
Tokyo; Seoul; Singapore
IPv6: yes
K Reseaux IP Europeens - RIPE
Network Coordination Centre
London (UK); Amsterdam (NL);
Frankfurt (DE); Athens (GR);
Doha (QA); Milan (IT);
Reykjavik (IS); Helsinki (FI);
Geneva (CH); Poznan (PL);
Budapest (HU); Abu Dhabi (AE);
Tokyo (JP); Brisbane (AU);
Miami (US)
IPv6: 2001:7fd::1
L ICANN Los Angeles 20144
M WIDE Project Tokyo; Seoul (KR); Paris (FR) IPv4:
IPv6: 2001:dc3::35

Map of Root Server Locations

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Where are DNS Root Servers? See them on Google Maps, CircleID 9/18/2007




Root Servers DOS

Paul Vixie, Events of 21-Oct-2002 (Nov. 24, 2002)

"On Monday, October 21, 2002, a coordinated denial-of-service attack was launched against all of the root servers in the Domain Name System. All 13 root servers, located around the world, were targeted. The root servers experienced an unusually high volume of traffic. Two root server operators reported that traffic was 3 times the normal level, while another reported that traffic was 10 times the normal level. The attacks lasted for approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes. While reports of the attack differ, they all agreed that at least 9 of the servers experienced degradation in service. Specifically, 7 failed to respond to legitimate network traffic and 2 others failed intermittently during the attack.

"Some root servers were unreachable from many parts of the global Internet because of traffic congestion from the attack. While all of the servers continued to answer any queries they received (because of their substantial backup capacity), many did not receive all of the queries that had been routed to them due to the high volume of traffic. However, average end users hardly noticed the attack. The attack became visible only as a result of various Internet health-monitoring projects. According to experts, the root name servers would have to be down for several hours before the effects would be noticeable to end users.

"The response to these attacks was handled by the server operators and their service providers. The Domain Name System servers worked as they were designed to, and demonstrated robustness against a concerted, synchronized attack. However, the attack pointed to a need to increase the capacity of servers at Internet exchange points in order to manage the high volumes of data traffic that occur during an attack. The attacks led to systems receiving faster-than-normal upgrades. According to experts familiar with the attack, the government did not have a role in recovering from this attack. - - GAO 06-672 Internet Infrastructure: DHS Faces Challenges in Developing a Joint Public/Private Recovery Plan, GAO Report, p. 23 (June 2006)

DOS News

  • FBI says DNS server attacks came from US, Korea Info World 11/3/02
  • DDoS attack highlights 'Net problems NWFusion 10/30/02
  • Massive DDoS Attack Hits Internet News 10/24/02
  • Net Attack Could Be First of Many, Experts Warn PC World 10/24/02
  • Feds investigating 'largest ever' Internet attack Register 10/24/02
  • Attack on heart of Internet fails to bring it down CNN 10/24/02
  • More Than One 'Net Attack Occurred Monday NYT 10/24/02
  • The Day The Net Nearly Choked BWO 10/30/02
  • Is A Larger Net Attack On The Way? MSNBC 10/30/02
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