AT&T Post Divestiture
1984 - Present
Year Merger Outcome Conditions 2017 AT&T / TW Telecom FCC chair doesn't expect to review AT&T-Time Warner merger, The Hill March 2017 2014 AT&T/DirecTV Approved
- Fiber Buildout
- Gigabit service to Erate recipients
- Non-Discriminatory Usage-Based Practices (Data Caps)
- Internet Interconnection
- Discounted broadand service for low income students
- Compliance Officer
2011 AT&T / T Mobile Blocked 2007 AT&T BellSouth Approved
- Reparation of jobs to U.S.
- Promoting accessibility to broadband services
- Statement on Video Roll-Out Intentions
- Public Safety, Disaster Recovery
- Service to Customers with Disabilities
- Reducing Transaction Costs Associated with (Telecommunications) Interconnect Agreements
- Special Access
- Transit (telecommunications) Service:
- ADSL Service
- Network Neutrality: "Effective on the Merger Closing Date, and continuing for 30 months thereafter, AT&T/BellSouth will conduct business in a manner that comports with the principles set forth in the Commission’s Policy Statement, issued September 23, 2005 (FCC 05-151). "
- Internet Backbone: Merger approved with conditions: must post peering policies; must maintain peering interconnections
- Divestiture of Facilities
- Tunney Act
2005 SBC / AT&T Approved
- SBC acquires AT&T, rebrands itself as "AT&T"
2004 AT&T Wireless / Cingular AT&T Wireless acquired by Cingular [The New AT&T 2005] 2002 AT&T Broadband / Comcast Approved
- AT&T's Internet over Cable Broadband Service sold to Comcast
2001 AT&T / Excite @Home Approved 2000 AT&T / Mediaone Approved
- Open Access conditions rejected
2000 CERFNet AT&T acquired CERFNet 1999 AT&T / IBM Approved AT&T acquired the IBM Internet backbone 1998 AT&T / TCI Approved
- Open Access conditions rejected
- AT&T long distance embarks on entering the local network service market
1995 Western Electric AT&T spins off Western Electric, which becomes Lucent. 1994 McGraw Cellular Approved AT&T acquires McGraw Cellular to become AT&T Wireless. 1984 Break up of the Bell System J Greene AT&T is broken up into AT&T long distance and the Baby Bells. 1956 Consent Decree Despite DOJ's attempts, AT&T is not required to divest itself of Western Electric 1909 AT&T / Western Union AT&T acquires former rival Western Union ~ AT&T will divest itself of Western Union pursuant to the 1913 Kingsbury Commitment 1902 Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company Set Aside AT&T acquired rival equipment manufacturer Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company; merger was set aside seven years later. 1899 American Bell / AT&T Approved
- AT&T (NY) acquires American Bell (MA) and becomes the parent company
1882 AT&T / Western Electric AT&T acquires rival Western Electric from Western Union 1877 Bell Telephone Formed
Antitrust: Divestiture 1984
1984 "AT&T reduces long distance rates by 6.4 percent, as non-traffic sensitive costs begin moving from rates to local-company administered access charges. This was the first in a series of rate reductions over the next six years that totaled approximately forty percent." [AT&T: History: Milestones]
- Filing and Review of Open Network Architecture Plans, Memorandum Opinion and Order, 4 FCC Rcd 2449 (1988) ("approving AT&T's plan involving a basic packet switching service underlying an enhanced protocol processing service")
- AT&T experiences several major network outages. Outage results in the Congressional Report "Asleep at the Switch" and the creation of the FCC FACA the Network Reliability and Interoperability Council. [AT&T Failure of 1990] [Making the Connection, Disaster Recovery] [Reed Hunt, Avoiding Digital Disruptions 1997]
- "One such merger came in 1991 when AT&T acquired computer maker NCR in a $7.3 billion deal designed to give the company's customers an edge as communications and computing converged." [AT&T: History: Post Divestiture]
- "Another, the agreement to acquire McCaw Cellular in 1994 for $11.5 billion, gave AT&T direct access to consumers for the first time in a decade. The unit, renamed AT&T Wireless, established AT&T as a leading force in the fast growing wireless telecommunications industry." [AT&T: History: Post Divestiture] AT&T's partnership with McGraw Cellular gave it its first, post-divestiture, local access connection with customers. AT&T Wireless would be acquired by Cingular in 2004, as AT&T abandoned the local access market.
- Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co. of Baltimore City (1891) becomes Bell Atlantic. Will merge with NYNEX to become Verizon [Baltimore Sun]
1995: FCC declares AT&T non dominant in the long distance market (long distance market is effectively competitive).
1996: Telecommunications Act of 1996 allows BOCs to enter the long distance market if they can demonstrate to the FCC that their local markets are competitive.
1998 acquired TCI; creates AT&T Broadband service
- acquired IBM Networks; Identified as one of five major backbones [Cremer p 14 n 12]
- "In 1984, AT&T carried an average of 37.5 million calls per average business day; in 1989, the equivalent volume was 105.9 million, and in 1999 270 million." [AT&T: History: Post Divestiture]
2000 acquired CERFNET
- Cingular acquires AT&T Wireless
- AT&T withdraws from residential markets:: "The company also announces a withdrawal from the consumer market to focus on business networking and VoIP." [The New AT&T 2005] Some analysis argue that the BOCs placed an interconnection / access charge squeeze on AT&T, making its entrance and performance in the local residential market untenable - explaining why AT&T sold off AT&T Wireless and AT&T broadband
2005 acquired by SBC and renamed AT&T
2006 acquired Bell South
2014 PSTN Transition Trials
2015 AT&T acquires DirecTV
AT&T Inc. and DIRECTV, 30 FCC Rcd 9131 MB Docket No. 14-90 (filed June 11, 2014)
Press Release "WASHINGTON, July 24, 2015 – Today, the Federal Communications Commission grants – with conditions – approval of the transfer of control of licenses and authorizations from DIRECTV to AT&T Inc. (AT&T). The approval will allow AT&T to acquire DIRECTV and merge the two companies into one combined entity.
"As part of the merger, AT&T-DIRECTV will be required to expand its deployment of high-speed, fiber optic broadband Internet access service to 12.5 million customer locations as well as to E-rate eligible schools and libraries. In addition, AT&T-DIRECTV is prohibited from using discriminatory practices to disadvantage online video distribution services and will submit its Internet interconnection agreements for Commission review. Finally, AT&T-DIRECTV will offer broadband services to low-income consumers at discounted rates.
The conditions imposed by the Commission address potential harms presented by the combination of AT&T, one of the nation’s largest telephone and Internet service providers, and DIRECTV, the nation’s largest satellite video provider. The conditions also ensure that the benefits of the merger will be realized. These targeted conditions, which generally will remain in effect for four years after the merger closes, include:
Note: "Closing Date" was July 24, 2015. AT&T Completes Acquisition of DirecTV, AT&T Newsroom July 24, 2016
- Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) Deployment. Recognizing that the merger reduces AT&T-DIRECTV’s incentive to deploy FTTP service, the Commission adopts as a condition of this merger the expansion of FTTP service to 12.5 million customer locations. This condition also responds to the harm of the loss of a video competitor in areas where AT&T and DIRECTV had directly competed before the merger by providing a pathway for increased competition from services that rely on broadband Internet to deliver video.
- Gigabit Service to E-rate Eligible Schools and Libraries. In addition, to ensure that schools and libraries also benefit from expanded fiber deployment to consumers and institutions, the Commission is also requiring AT&T-DIRECTV to offer gigabit service to any E-rate eligible school or library where AT&T-DIRECTV deploys FTTP service.
- Non-Discriminatory Usage-Based Practices. Recognizing that AT&T is the only major ISP that applies “data caps” across the board to all of its fixed broadband customers and that this merger increases the incentive of AT&T-DIRECTV to use strategies that limit consumers’ access to online video distribution services in order to favor its own video services, the Commission requires AT&T-DIRECTV, as a condition of this merger, to refrain from imposing discriminatory usage-based allowances or other discriminatory retail terms and conditions on its broadband Internet service.
- Internet Interconnection Disclosure Requirements. Recognizing the importance of interconnection to the operation of online video services, the Commission also requires as a condition of this merger that AT&T-DIRECTV submit its Internet interconnection agreements so that the Commission may monitor the terms of such agreements to determine whether AT&T-DIRECTV is denying or impeding access to its networks in anticompetitive ways through the terms of these agreements.
- AT&T DirecTV Merger Order, Appendix B, Sec. V.1. (disclosure of Internet Interconnection agreements; reporting Internet interconnection metric; Independent Measurement Expert)
- Discounted Broadband Services for Low-Income Subscribers. While finding that the availability of better and lower priced bundles of video and broadband service is a potential benefit of the merger, the Commission also concludes that the public interest requires us to ensure that a bundle of video and broadband services is not the only competitive choice for low-income subscribers who may not be able to afford bundled services. The Commission accordingly requires as a condition of the merger that AT&T-DIRECTV make available an affordable, low-price standalone broadband service to low-income consumers in its broadband service area.
- Compliance Program and Reporting. Given the important role that these conditions serve in securing the public interest benefits of the merger, the Commission requires that AT&T-DIRECTV retain both an internal company compliance officer and an independent, external compliance officer that will report and monitor, respectively, the combined entity’s compliance with all conditions of the merger.
- AT&T / DirecTV Merger Order (2015) Section V (detailing interconnection conditions)
- “We have not identified in the record any evidence that would support blanket restrictions on all interconnection arrangements between the Applicants and OVDs. However, given our heightened concern where ISPs compete with third-party Internet-based services (i.e., OVDs), we impose additional conditions…” AT&T / DirecTV Order, ¶ 219. See also AT&T / DirecTV Order, ¶ 396.
- Independent Measurement Expert Identified In Accordance With AT&T-Directv Merger Condition: CAIDA (DA No. 15-1116). (Dkt No 14-90 ). MB
- Report of the AT&T Independent Measurement Expert Analysis of Reporting Requirements and Proposals for measurement models, Dec 29, 2015
- 8/12/16 Internet Interconnection Performance Measurement Methodology Adopted in Accordance with AT&T-DIRECTV Merger Condition
- 10/23/15 - Public Notice FCC Announces Independent Compliance Officer In AT&T-Directv Merger
- Application of AT&T Inc. and DIRECTV For Consent to Assign or Transfer Control of Licenses and Authorizations, Dkt 14-90, Memorandum Opinion and Order (2015), https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-15-94A1.pdf
- FCC GRANTS APPROVAL OF AT&T/DIRECTV TRANSACTION. News Release. MB
- FCC RELEASES ORDER APPROVING AT&T-DIRECTV TRANSACTION. FCC Releases Order Approving AT&T-DIRECTV Transaction. (Dkt No. 14-90 ). Action by: the Commission. Adopted: 07/24/2015 by MO&O. (FCC No. 15-94). MB https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-15-94A1.pdf
- Mark Lowenstein,Lowenstein's View:WhatshouldAT&T do now thatitowns DirecTV?, FierceWireless(July 29, 2015), .
- "In 2011, the Antitrust Division sued to block AT&T’s acquisition of T-Mobile and the FCC staff expressed concern that the loss of horizontal competition, with a merger of two of the largest four competitors, would be harmful. By early 2014, DOJ Assistant Attorney General Bill Baer was able to report that, in the aftermath of the withdrawal of the proposed AT&T/T-Mobile transaction, T-Mobile had taken action to “offer cheaper and better customer contracts” that Sprint “began offering unlimited plans with aggressive prices and innovative service arrangements” and that bigger competitors had responded with improved products of their own. In August of 2014, the proposed tie-up was abandoned and Chairman Wheeler said, “Four national wireless providers is good for American consumers.” More than a year later, that position has been vindicated. Sprint has announced plans to build out and improve its wireless network. T-Mobile continues its “un-carrier” campaign, reporting continued customer additions, and describing itself as “the fastest growing wireless company in America.” And, as of the second quarter of 2015, T-Mobile had increased its market share to 16%, catching up to Sprint." [Sallet 2015]
- Released: 05/24/2011. PROPOSED TRANSFER OF CONTROL OF T-MOBILE USA, INC. AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES FROM DEUTSCHE TELEKOM AG TO AT&T INC. (DA No. 11-945). (Dkt No 11-65 99-200 ) ADDITIONAL LOCAL NUMBER PORTABILITY INFORMATION TO BE PLACED INTO THE RECORD, SUBJECT TO PROTECTIVE ORDER. WTB . Contact: Kathy Harris at 0609 or Stacy Ferraro at 0795 TXT
- Released: 04/14/2011. COMMISSION OPENS DOCKET FOR PROPOSED TRANSFER OF CONTROL OF T-MOBILE USA, INC. AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES FROM DEUTSCHE TELEKOM AG TO AT&T INC. (DA No. 11-673). (Dkt No 11-65 ). WTB
- FCC: AT&T / T Mobile Merger
- On April 21, 2011, AT&T Inc. ("AT&T") and Deutsche Telekom AG ("Deutsche Telekom") (collectively, the "Applicants") filed a series of applications seeking the Commission's consent to the transfer of control of the licenses and authorizations held by T-Mobile USA and its wholly-owned and controlled subsidiaries from Deutsche Telekom to AT&T. On November 29, 2011, the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau granted the Applicants' request to withdraw the applications. In view of the Applicants' publicly stated plan to continue to pursue the proposed transaction, however, the Bureau did not close the docket.
- 5/14/12 Memorandum Opinion and Order Denying Application for Review filed by Diogenes Telecommunications Project MO&O: Word | Acrobat
- 4/17/12 Memorandum Opinion and Order Dismissing the Application for Review filed by The Diogenes Telecommunications Project MO&O: Word | Acrobat
- 11/29/11 Bureau Dismissal Without Prejudice of AT&T's Applications for Transfer of Control of T-Mobile USA, Inc.
Bureau Order: Acrobat
Bureau Staff Analysis and Findings: Acrobat
Genachowski Statement: Word | Acrobat
Copps Statement: Word | Acrobat
Clyburn Statement: Word | Acrobat
- 11/10/11 Rulings on Complaints of Ex Parte Violations.
- 11/4/11 Follow-up Letter to Cellular South Regarding Information Request.
- 10/27/11 Letter to Applicants Requesting Additional Documents and Information.
- 10/13/11Letter to AT&T Regarding Response About Jobs.
- 10/12/11 Notice of Federal Court Order Mandating Disclosure, Subject to a Protective Order, of NRUF and LNP Data and Submissions in Docket No. 11-65 that Contain NRUF and LNP Data. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 9/13/11 Notice of Request by the Office of the Attorney General of Florida to Review Submissions in Docket No. 11-65 that Contain NRUF and LNP Data. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 9/7/11 Notice California Public Utility Commission's Requiring Submission Of Filings that Contain NRUF and LNP Data. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 8/31/11 Letter with Questions to Applicants Regarding Economic and Engineering Models.
- 8/31/11 U.S. Justice Department Files Antitrust Lawsuit to Block AT&T's Acquisition of T-Mobile. Press Release Complaint
- 8/31/11 Statements on Department of Justice's Action on AT&T - T-Mobile Transaction. Genachowski Statement: Word | Acrobat Copps Statement: Word | Acrobat Clyburn Statement: Word | Acrobat
- 8/26/11 Letter to AT&T Inc. Starting 180-Day Clock.
- 8/24/11 Request for Further Information on AT&T's LTE Deployment Plans Relating to the AT&T/T-Mobile Transaction. Information Request: Acrobat
- 8/9/11 Notice of Request by Additional Offices of State Attorneys General to Review Submissions in Docket No. 11-65 that Contain NRUF and LNP Data. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 7/26/11 Third Party Information Request (Tower Owners and Operators). Information Request: Acrobat Information Request: Acrobat Information Request: Acrobat
- 7/20/11 Letter to AT&T Inc. Stopping 180-Day Clock.
- 7/19/11 Second Protective Order (Revised) - new Appendix A [ 1 | 2 ]
- 7/13/11 Economists' Workshop Letter Transcript
- 7/13/11 Notice of Request by Offices of State Attorneys General to Review Submissions in Docket No. 11-65 that Contain NRUF and LNP Data. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 6/28/11 Supplemental Request for Information Concerning Applications of AT&T Inc. and Deutsche Telekom AG
Information Request: Acrobat
Information Request: Acrobat
Information Request: Acrobat
Information Request: Acrobat
Information Request: Acrobat
Information Request: Acrobat
- 6/28/11 Supplemental Request for Information Sent to Deutsche Telekom AG/T-Mobile USA Information Request: Acrobat
- 6/28/11 Supplemental Request for Information Sent to AT&T Inc. Information Request: Acrobat
- 6/22/11 AT&T-T-Mobile Order Adopting Revised Second Protective OrderOrder: Word | Acrobat
- 6/22/11 AT&T-T-Mobile Revised Second Protective Order 2nd Protective Order (Revised): Word | Acrobat
- 6/9/11 Applications of AT&T Inc. and Deutsche Telekom AG for Consent To Transfer Control of the Licenses and Authorizations Held by T-Mobile USA, Inc. and Its Subsidiaries Letter: Word | Acrobat Revised Appendix A to Second Protective Order: Word | Acrobat
- 6/6/11 Request for information
- 6/6/11 Request for Information Concerning Applications of AT&T Inc. and Deutsche Telekom AG
Information Request: Cellular South
Information Request: Leap Wireless and Cricket Communications
Information Request: MetroPCS
Information Request: Sprint Nextel
Information Request: U.S. Cellular
Information Request: Verizon Wireless
- 5/27/11 Request for Information Sent to Deutsche Telekom AG/T-Mobile USA. Letter: Word | Acrobat Information Request: Acrobat
- 5/27/11 Request for Information Sent to AT&T Inc. Letter: Word | Acrobat Information Request: Acrobat
- 5/25/11 AT&T/T-Mobile: Denial of Motion for Extension of Time. Order: Word | Acrobat
- 5/24/11 Additional Local Number Portability Information to be Placed into the Record, Subject to Protective Order. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 4/28/11 Pleading Cycle Established. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 4/27/11 Second Protective Order: Word | Acrobat
- 4/21/11 AT&T-T-Mobile Applications Have Been Filed. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- 4/18/11 Numbering Resource Utilization and Forecast Reports and Local Number Portability reports to be Placed Into the Record. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat Protective Order: Word | Acrobat
- 4/14/11 Protective Order: Word | Acrobat
- 4/14/11 Commission Opens Docket for Proposed Transfer of Control of T-Mobile USA, Inc. to AT&T Inc. Public Notice: Word | Acrobat
- Schoenberg, Tom; Forden, Sara; Bliss, Jeff (2011-08-31). "U.S. Files to Block AT&T, T-Mobile Merger". Bloomberg.
- Kang, Cecelia; Jia Lynn Yang (9 Dec 2011), "How AT&T fumbled its $39 billion bid to acquire T-Mobile", The Washington Post, washingtonpost.com
- AT&T (2011-12-19). "AT&T Ends Bid To Add Network Capacity Through T-Mobile USA Purchase"
- "AT&T to Buy T-Mobile USA for $39 Billion". New York Times. 2011-03-20. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011.
- Troianovski, Anton; Bensinger, Greg; Schatz, Amy (25 November 2011). "AT&T's T-Mobile Deal Teeters". The Wall Street Journal.
- Wyatt, Edward (August 21, 2011). "U.S. Moves to Block Merger Between AT&T and T-Mobile". The New York Times.
- "FCC Restarts 180 Day Clock on AT&T/ T-Mobile Merger- Cutting through all the Hype! | The Viodi View". Viodi.com. 2011-08-26.
- "FCC chair opposes AT&T takeover of T-Mobile". BusinessWeek. 2011-11-22.
- German, Kent. "States weigh in on AT&T-T-Mobile merger". CNET.
DHS Enhanced Cybersecurity Services (ECS)
AT&T is a Communications Service Provider accredited to provide ECS. [DHS ECS]
"On May 25, 2010, according to press reports, a service outage involving the AT&T U-Verse platform involved a server failure that impacted U-Verse interconnected VoIP service in AT&T’s entire 22-state local phone service area serving approximately 1.15 million customers. The reports indicate that the outage lasted for several hours. It remains unclear how many subscribers were unable to reach 9-1-1 and for how long."
- Reselling Akamai
Interconnection / Backbones
- AT&T, AT&T Backbone
- Tech Spec
- Settlement-Free Peering Policy
- AT&T IP Backbone supports IPv6
- Tier 1 per FCC [AT&T / Bell South Merger ¶ 127] [SBC / AT&T Merger Order ¶ 115 2005] [Verizon / MCI Merger Order ¶ 116 2005] [Level 3 / GC Merger ¶ 22 2011]
- "Atlas 10" 2007 with 3.35%. ATLAS Internet Observatory, 2009 Annual Report
- Listed as Transit Free by Renesys 2009
- Tier 1 [Israel, Besen 2012]
- Internet Health Report
- PeeringDB (no IXP info)
- Interactive Map
- 1998 acquired TCI; creates AT&T Broadband service
- 1999 acquired IBM Networks
- 1999 Identified as one of five major backbones [Cremer p 14 n 12]
- 2000 acquired CERFNET
- 2005 acquired by SBC and renamed AT&T
- 2006 acquired Bell South
Interconnection Negotiations / Disputes
- AT&T / DirecTV Merger Order at 218 (2015) "In addition, on June 18, 2015, GTT Communications, Inc. (“GTT”) and AT&T entered into a long-term interconnection agreement to provide added capacity and new interconnection points for their IP networks" citing Letter from Maureen R Jeffreys, Counsel to AT&T, to Marlene H. Dortch, Secretary, FCC, MB Docket No. 14-90, at 1 & Exhibit 75.2.28 (filed June 24, 2015)
- Level 3 Communications, Level 3 and AT&T Enter Into Interconnection Agreement (press release), May 11, 2015 (Level 3’s Chief Marketing Officer stated “[t]his agreement will benefit Level 3’s and AT&T’s customers for years to come. With customer needs at the forefront, you enable a growing, secure and resilient interconnection environment.” AT&T’s interconnection agreement with Level 3 “will result in improved efficiency of traffic exchange, and the additional capacity and new interconnection locations between the networks will allow customers to continue to experience high-quality performance and network reliability.”)
Cogent (note that Netflix was Cogent's customer during this time)
- Sean Buckley, Cogent’s Schaffer: Our interconnections with AT&T, Verizon are nearly congestion free, FierceTelecom Oct. 1, 2015
- Cogent Communications, Inc., Cogent and AT&T Enter Into Interconnection Agreement (press release), June 10, 2015 (Cogent’s CEO stated “[b]oth Cogent and AT&T’s customers will benefit from this agreement for years to come. We are putting customer needs at the forefront by enabling an expanded, secure and resilient interconnection environment.”)
- Victor Lickerson, Netflix is Paying AT&T to Make Movies Stream Faster, TIME (July 30, 2014)
- Alex Wilhelm, Netflix and AT&T Sign Peering Agreement, Techcrunch (Jul 29, 2014)
- Andy Fixmer, Netflix Signs Peering Deal with AT&T to Reduce Buffering, Mashable (July 29, 2014);
- Karl Bode, Netflix CDN Partners Soar in Latest Netflix ISP Rankings, DSLReports (Feb. 12, 2013);
- Jon Brodkin, Netflix users on Verizon and AT&T get raw deal, have little reason for hope, Ars Technica (Mar. 29, 2014).
- Robert Sorokanich, Netflix Lets People Know When Bad Streaming is the ISPs Fault, GIZMODO (June 4, 2014).
- Netflix Comments, Dkt. 14-90, at 23 (discussing degraded Netflix service as a result of interconnection dispute)
- Letter from John M. Ryan, Chief Legal Officer, Level 3, to James W. Cicconi, Senior Executive Vice President, AT&T, February 24, 2011 "Many people - some regulators included - mistakenly believe that when a subscriber connects to a web site, application or content on the Internet, the packets for that information exchange follow a number of different paths through the Internet. As you know, the truth is that for any particular connection between an end subscriber and another point on the Internet, the packets between the subscriber's computer and the other endpoint in the Internet will follow the same path until there is a "hard failure" - meaning that the connection along that path is taken out of service. The routers within the Internet will not automatically route around congestion. If an interconnection point within the Internet becomes congested, the routers will continue to route packets along the same path. As the interconnection capacity congests, the routers cannot get the packets processed and delivered and the routers will delay packets or, when congestion is more severe, randomly discard packets. These delays and random "packet losses" affect all services that are passing through the congested point. Most Internet routers are not programmed to evaluate packets to determine which packets should be dropped during periods of congestion; as a result, Internet packets of all types are potentially impacted by congested interconnection, and the experience of the subscriber is degraded."
- AT&T v YMax Corp. (MagicJack, access charges 2011 )
- AT&T provides VoIP service CallVantage [The New AT&T 2005]
- Cingular, Qwest Shocked That People Don't Like It When They Arbitrarily Block Calls; Lift FreeConference Ban, Techdirt 4/12/2007
- Towns Fight AT&T Over Eminent Domain - And placement of bulky VDSL cabinets, Broadband Reports 4/5/2007
- AT&T playing nasty? Itasca says lost service is pink box payback, Daily Herald 2/23/2007
- AT&T Net phone disappoints, CNET 3/18/2005
- AT&T Looks to Intel for VoIP, InternetNews 12/14/2004
- AT&T creates local Net telephony plan, CNET 10/15/2004
- AT&T strikes VoIP deals with cable, CNET 8/25/2004
- AT&T urges arbitration for local phone access, CNET 5/14/2004
- AT&T to offer new IP-only service, CNET 5/4/2004
- AT&T joins Internet call market, Boston 4/27/2004
- For AT&T, Baby Bells, the real fight begins, CNET 4/23/2004
- AT&T to offer Internet calling, CNET 12/12/2003
- AT&T adds more VoIP service, CNET 9/24/03
- AT&T Bets On Voice-Over-IP, ZDNet 2/5/01
- AT&T Led Group to buy net2phone Washington Post 4/3
- AT&T, Yahoo! Grab 37 Percent of Net2Phone Internet News 3/31
- AT&T, Yahoo! buy stakes in Internet phone company Net2Phone NandoTimes 3/31
- 14.5 million subscribers AT&T / DirecTV Merger Order at 207 (2015)
- 6 million subscribers. AT&T / DirecTV Merger Order at 199 (2015)
- "in 2014, AT&T announced that it will join The Chernin Group, which manages and invests in media businesses, to invest over $500 million to acquire and launch online video services." AT&T / DirecTV Merger Order, at 211 (2015)
- The Chernin Group and AT&T Create New Venture to Acquire, Invest In and Launch Online Video Businesses, AT&T NEWSROOM, April 22, 2014
- AT&T / DirecTV Application at 77; Lee Decl. ¶ 48 (noting that AT&T recently entered into an arrangement with The Chernin Group to acquire, invest in, and launch online video services, which will “generate additional capabilities to develop and market innovative OTT services that can be delivered through all types of wired and wireless devices,” and that “[t]he programming for those services will likely include ad-supported and subscription-based video-on-demand channels, as well as streaming services”)
- "In December 2014, DIRECTV launched Yaveo, its first Internet-only subscription video service, aimed at U.S. Hispanic consumers, in conjunction with partners including Univision Communications and Viacom. When the acquisition was announced, DIRECTV’s Chief Revenue and Marketing Officer, Paul Guyardo, stated, “Yaveo gets DirecTV into the OTT business, and we’re excited to start with a compelling Spanishlanguage service targeted to the Hispanic community,” and “[w]e’ll learn a great deal, use the findings to grow and improve the Yaveo platform and expand our OTT offering over time.”"AT&T / DirecTV Merger Order, at 211 (2015)
- Remarks of Jon Sallet, Federal Communications Commission General Counsel, As Prepared for Delivery, Telecommunications Policy Research Conference: “The Federal Communications Commission and Lessons of Recent Mergers & Acquisitions Reviews” (Sept. 25, 2015),