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AT&T :: 1963 - 1984 Dont be a FOOL; The Law is Not DIY


AntiTrust III :: The Break-up of AT&T and the Story of MCI

MCI was an innovative long distance company that radicalized the telecommunications market. Started in the 1960s, the business plan was to use radio licenses to provide long distance service between Chicago and St. Louis. MCI's application to provide service was approved by the FCC in 1969. But AT&T and the BOCs didn't like this much, and refused to interconnect with MCI. MCI had difficulty negotiating interconnection with AT&T, hired special counsel skilled in negotiations, and brought the issue before the FCC. In 1973, AT&T threw a curveball by filing interconnection tarriffs in 49 state PUCs, transforming MCI's transaction costs from one interconnection agreement, to 49 different agreements in each jurisdiction. In 1974, AT&T disconnected MCI. Finally, frustrated, in 1974, MCI, along with the Department of Justice, filed an antitrust suit against AT&T. On June 13th, 1980, the Court ruled in favor of MCI, awarding MCI $1.8 billion in damages. Two years later, AT&T would negotiate with DOJ the resolution of their antitrust lawsuit, agreeing to the breakup of the Bell System. The terms of Consent Decree, breaking AT&T up into AT&T long distance and seven Regional Bell Operating Companies, went into effect Jan. 1, 1984.

Scholars have noted that the legal battle with AT&T cost $10m, whereas construction of the network cost $2m. Sterling, Bernt, Weiss, Shaping American Telecommunications, p.133 (2006) According to lore, MCI had more lawyers than land lines. It became known as "a law firm with an antenna on the roof."

In 2005, one of the Regional Bell Operating Companies, SBC, would acquire AT&T Long Distance, and emerge from the ashes as a reborn AT&T.

Timeline

1963

1964: There are 23 Bell Telephone companies, of which 21 AT&T owns more than 50% of the stock (they are subsidiaries) [Iardella 19]

  1. New England Telephone and Telegraph
  2. New York Telephone
  3. New Jersey Bell Telephone
  4. Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania
  5. Diamond State Telephone (Delaware)
  6. Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co (Wash DC)
  7. Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co of Maryland
  8. Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co of Virginia
  9. Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co of West Virginia
  10. Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph
  11. Ohio Bell
  12. Michigan Bell
  13. Indiana Bell
  14. Wisconsin Bell
  15. Illinois Bell
  16. Northwestern Bell
  17. Southwestern Bell
  18. Mountain State Telephone and Telegraph
  19. Pacific Northwest Bell
  20. Pacific Telephone and Telegraph
  21. Bell Telephone of Nevada
  22. Southern New England Telephone (AT&T only owned 20%)
  23. Cincinnati Bell (AT&T only owned 30%)

1965

Computer Inquiries

1966: FCC initiates the Computer Inquiries. contemplating the regulatory response to both computers operating the network and computers being operated over the network.

1968 :: Carterfone

Opening AT&T to interconnection with "foreign attachments" (customer premises equipment a.k.a. modems, fax machines, answering machines)

1969:

1971: AT&T is offered the opportunity to take over, own and operate ARPANet. "AT&T could have owned the network as a monopoly service, but in the end declined. "They finally concluded that the packet technology was incompatible with the AT&T network," Roberts said." [Wizards p. 232]

1972: AT&T decides not to take over control of the Internet.

1973 FCC authorizes MCI to offer foreign exchange service and AT&T was ordered to interconnect with MCI's service

1974: MCI files anti trust lawsuit against AT&T

1975 "AT&T installs the world's first digital electronic toll switch, the 4ESS®, in Chicago. This switch could handle a much higher volume of calls (initially 350,000 per hour) with greater flexibility and speed than the electromechanical switch it replaced." [AT&T: History: Milestones] [Picture of Control Room of the first 4ESS Switch 1975]

1977

1978:

1979: " In 1979 they started talking about AIS, Advanced Information Service, another network they never made." [Babbage (Kleinrock) 27] [Nerds p 115]

1980: AT&T loses anti trust lawsuit filed by MCI

The UNIX Operating System 1982
1982

AT&T Accunet

1983

1984 "AT&T reduces long distance rates by 6.4 percent, as non-traffic sensitive costs begin moving from rates to local-company administered access charges. This was the first in a series of rate reductions over the next six years that totaled approximately forty percent." [AT&T: History: Milestones]

1988

1991:

1994

1995: FCC declares AT&T non dominant in the long distance market (long distance market is effectively competitive). 

1996: Telecommunications Act of 1996 allows BOCs to enter the long distance market if they can demonstrate to the FCC that their local markets are competitive.

1998 acquired TCI; creates AT&T Broadband service

1999

2000

2002

2004:

2005 acquired by SBC and renamed AT&T

2006 acquired Bell South (along with Cingular - owned by SBC and Bell South - which had acquired AT&T Mobility in 2004)

2007: Cingular signs exclusive deal with Apple of the iPhone

Hearing: Consumer Wireless Experience, Senate Commerce Committee, June 17, 2009 (discussing the exclusive deal)

2010: FCC Broadband Plan recommends that FCC work on transition of the network from PSTN to IP

2011

2012 AT&T / Facetime

2013: FCC releases proceedings addressing the migration from PSTN to IP, and the termination of the PSTN

2014 PSTN Transition Trials

2015 AT&T acquires DirecTV

Caselaw

Books

Papers