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Timeline: Internet, Federal Govt, and Communications

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Date
Event
105 Paper Invented
1454 Gutenberg press with movable type created
1636 Harvard University, the first institution of higher learning in the United States, founded [Harvard Guide]
1690 Unlicensed newspaper Publick Occurrences publishes in Boston and is suppressed [Alliance Community Media]
1704 Boston News-Letter published, first successful colonial newspaper [Alliance Community Media]
1741 American Magazine, first magazine published in America
1742 Benjamin Franklin publishes first American magazine with advertisements, General Magazine [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]
1747 Sir. William Watson demonstrates the transmission of electricity along a metal wire. [PBS The Great Transatlantic Cable]
1752 Benjamin Franklin's Electricity Experiments [PBS The Great Transatlantic Cable]
1776 Thomas Paine publishes "Common Sense"
1791 US Bill of Rights, First Amendment
1801 Jacquard invents punch-card wood loom [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]
1820 Electromagnetism discovered [Alliance Community Media ]
1831 Joseph Henry builds telegraph [Wikipedia]
1835 Morse invents Morse Code [Wikipedia]
1844 Samuel Morse demonstrates telegraph between Baltimore and Washington, D.C. [Griffiths, Hughes]
1846 NYC to Philadelphia telegraph line is opened and is profitable [Sterling p. 40]
1849 Antonio Meucci demonstrates the telephone in Cuba [Wikipedia]
1850 Telegraph line laid between England and France across the English Channel [Hughes ]
1851

Reuters established [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company established [WU]

New York Times founded [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

1856 The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company becomes Western Union [WU]
1857 Treaty of the Six Nations, establishing a telegraph service cartel, dividing country up into six sections and assigning each section to one firm. [Sterling p. 43]
1861

Western Union completes first transcontinental line [WU]

Pony Express comes to an end [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

1862 First cost to coast telegraph line completed [Sterling p 40]
1865 Telegraphic message transmitted by radio 18 miles [Alliance Community Media]
1866

Western Union introduces stock ticker [WU] Western Union acquires US Telegraph and American Telegraph.

1867 First transatlantic submarine cable laid. [Hughes ]
1876 Bell patents telephone
1872 Western Electric Manufacturing Company established [Wikipedia]
1873 Western Union acquires Intl Ocean Telegraph Co
1876 Alexander Graham Bell transmits first telephone message "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you." Bell and Elisha Gray patent telephone. [Alliance Community Media, AT&T ]
1877 American Bell established [AT&T]
1878

First North American Telephone Exchange in New Haven, CT [AT&T]

SNET established.

1880 Bell Canada established [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]
1882 Bell Telephone acquires Western Electric Company [AT&T]
1884

First long distance telephone call between NYC and Boston

IEEE Founded [IEEE History Center Voice]

1885 AT&T established [Media Timeline ketupa.net; AT&T ]
1887 Interstate Commerce Commission created to regulate railroads - The first independent regulatory agency
1889 First Pay Phone [Alliance Community Media]
1889

Herman Hollerith develops first punch card machine

1891 Wireless Telegraphs begin to appear on ocean going vessels [FCC]
1892

AT&T opens first long distance line between NY and Chicago Rate was $9 for 5 minutes [AT&T]

1894

Bell telephone patents expire [AT&T]

Marconi successfully transmits radio signal 2 miles in Italy [Hughes]

1896

Tabulating Machine Company established by Hollerith

Marconi gives first public demonstration of wireless telegraph [Alliance]

1898 US Congress imposes Excise Tax on telephone services as a part of the Spanish War Act of 1898.
1899 AT&T acquires American Bell [Alliance]
1900 Fessenden transmitts voice over radio. [FCC]
1901

Marconi successfully transmits radio signal across Atlantic. [Hughes] [FCC]

Congress creates National Bureau of Standards (will become National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) [ITL]

1906 Russian Boris Rosing invents first working TV [Hughes]
1908 AT&T Pres. Theodore Vail unveils his PR campaign, "One System, One Policy, Universal Service." [AT&T]
1909

First short wave radio broadcasts [Alliance]

Legislation

1910 Mann-Elkin Act brought interstate telecommunications within the jurisdiction of the the ICC . ICC initiates an investigation of AT&T
1912

Titanic sinks - its radio calls for help go unheard [Media Timeline ketupa.net] [Faulhaber] [FCC]

Radio Act of 1912 gives Secretary of Commerce and Labor authority to issue radio licenses and control broadcasting [FCC]

1913 Kingsbury agreement between US Government and AT&T. AT&T agreed to stop acquiring independent phone companies and to divest itself of Western Union [Lessig p 29]
1914

ASCAP founded [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

Calculating-Tabulating-Recording company (aka IBM) founded by Herman Hollerith [Griffiths]

Federal Trade Commission created.

Clayton Act enacted (Antitrust)

1915 First Transcontinental telephone line, utilized vacuum tubes [AT&T]
1917 US Enters World War I. USG nationalizes both radio service and telephone service.
1918 USG nationalizes AT&T . AT&T is privatized again in 1919.
1919

CTR formed out of merger of Computing Scale Company, Tabulating Machine Company, and the Recording Company

AT&T introduces first dial telephone. [AT&T]

1920

KDKA Pittsburgh broadcasts first regular programs [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

Hush-a-phone starts being made.

1922

ASCAP demands royalties from radio stations [Alliance]

First Radio daily news. First Radio commercials. [Alliance]

NIST builds first AC radio. [NIST Centennial]

1923

Disney opens Hollywood film studio [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

FTC initiates anti trust investigation of RCA, GE, Westinghouse, AT&T and United Fruit [Alliance]

NIST radio station WWV goes online [NIST Centennial]

1924

Calculating-Tabulating-Recording company becomes IBM [Griffiths]

Bell labs invents mobile phone. [Alliance]

First presidential speech broadcast [Alliance]

1926 NBC founded by GE [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]
1927

FCC

  • Radio Act of 1927 creates the Federal Radio Commission, declares spectrum to be a public good

Industry

  • Philo Farnsworth successfully transmits first image [Hughes]
  • AT&T begins transatlantic service [AT&T]
1928

CBS created [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

Disney releases first Mickey Mouse cartoon [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

Olmstead v US (telephone calls not protected by 4th Amendment)

1929

Oct 29, Black Friday, the Stock Market crashes

First telephone installed in White House [Alliance]

Cathorade tube invented [Alliance]

1930 AT&T becomes sanctioned telephony monopoly under Theodore Vail's vision of "one system, one policy, universal service." [Fraser]
1932

GE ordered to divest RCA and NBC [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

ITU established [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

1933 FM radio demonstrated [Alliance]
1934

Communications Act of 1934 establishes the Federal Communications Commission . Eugene Sykes (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1935

Eugene Sykes (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Anning Prall (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1936 Publication of Alan Turin, On Computable Numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem [Media Timeline ketupa.net]
1937

Anning Prall (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Frank McNinch (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1938

First publicly broadcast football game, U Penn [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

War of the Worlds broadcast [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

Silicon Valley born in a garage by HP [Nerds]

National Federation of Telephone Workers formed.

1939

AT&T demonstrates Picturephone [TCMHC]

First FM radio station [Alliance]

Frank McNinch (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; James Lawrence Fly (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1940

CBS demonstrates color TV [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

First remote job entry, George Stibitz demonstrated remote calculation via a teletype demonstrated between Dartmouth and Manhattan during meeting of the American Mathematical Society [Salus p 1]

1941

United States enters World War II

FCC promulgates national TV ownership rules.

1942 USG grants Hedy Lamarr a patent for "Secret Communications System," spread spectrum technology.
1943

Western Union pioneers first intercity microwave system [WU]

First African American woman, Gloria Shepperson, is hired by Bell System

1944

IBM built the Harvard Mark I, first large scale electronic calculator, in order to calculate gun-firing tables [Griffiths]

ENIAC created and used by US Army, at U Penn, to compute World War II ballistic firing tables

Alan Turing leads British effort to build Colossus at Bletchley Park, breaks German code created by ENIGMA [Griffiths]

FCC Mayflower Doctrine

James Lawrence Fly (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Ewell Jett (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

Ewell Jett (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Paul Porter (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1945

Supreme Court upholds media ownership rules, finding that mergers that narrow dissemination of information are unconstitutional [Alliance]

Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, Atlantic Monthly (July 1945)

Vannevar Bush, Science - The Endless Frontier Report to the President

1946

"Formal dedication and dinner for ENIAC - The world's first operational electronic digital computer - developed by Army Ordinance to computer WWII ballistic firing tables." [CFP 2002 Calendar ]

NIST establishes an automated electronic computing project. [NIST Centennial]

AT&T introduces mobile telephone service. [AT&T]

Paul Porter (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Charles Denny (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

Administrative Procedures Act enacted.

1947

ENIAC patent filed

NIST builds computers for government agencies. [NIST Centennial]

ITU becomes part of UN [Media Timeline ketupa.net]

Transistor invented at Bell Labs [Hughes] [AT&T]

McCarthy Red-fear era begins

Communications Workers of America union formed.

FCC

  • Charles Denny (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Paul Walker (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
  • Paul Walker (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Wayne Coy (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
1948

Cable television service begins [Cable]

BBN Founded [BBN]

1949 Pacifica radio goes on the air in Berkeley [Pacifica]
1950

NIST's Standards Eastern Automatic Computer (SEAC) goes online. "First operational, internally programmed digital computer in the United States. It served the government for more than 13 years, handling tasks such as Air Force planning, Social Security accounting, and checking of calculations for the design of the hydrogen bomb." [NIST Centennial]

National Science Foundation established.

1951 Remington-Rand built UNIVAC I computer, the first commercial computer, for US census [Griffiths] [Nerds] [ITL]
1952

USGovt sues IBM for antitrust [Media Timeline ketupa.net ]

Wayne Coy (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Paul Walker (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1953

IBM ships its first electronic computer, the 700 series [Griffiths] [IBM]

Paul Walker (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Rosel Hyde (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1954 Rosel Hyde (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; George McConnaughey (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
1955

First color television transmission of a US President, Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower [Hughes]

AT&T begins to develop T1 Digital Lines [Abbate p 16]

1956

Consent Decree between DOJ and AT&T : Prohibits AT&T through its manufacturing subsidiary Western Electric from making non telecommunications related computing equipment (in other words, AT&T could not compete with IBM!) [Lehr]

DC Cir rules that you can attach a Hush-a-phone to an AT&T phone.

FCC rules that cable television is not common carriage and therefore the FCC lacks jurisdiction over Cable. Frontier Broadcasting Company v. Collier, 24 FCC 251 [Cable]

1957

USSR launches Sputnik I (Oct 4) NIST modifies equipment so as to receive transmissions from Sputnik. [NIST Centennial]

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) formed. [Griffiths] [PBS Nerds2.0.1] [DARPA]

George McConnaughey (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; John Doerfer (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1958

NASA formed, transferring missile responsibility from ARPA to NASA (summer). [Griffiths] [Nerds]

UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space established [Hughes]

AT&T introduces first commercial modem. [AT&T]

1960

Publication of Man-Computer Symbiosis by JCR Licklider [PBS Nerds2.0.1]

John Doerfer (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Frederick Ford (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

BBN leased Digital Equipment Corporations first PDP-1 computer with serial number 1 [BBN]

1961

Radical group blew up 4 microwave towers in Utah, cutting off communications to Western USA, and demonstrating the vulnerability of the US communications network. [Shabot] [Salus p 1, 5] See Images of damage, at AT&T Long Lines. These was a driving force in DOD's concern about the survivability of the US Communications network, and hiring Paul Baran.

President Kennedy commits nation to landing a man on the moon. [NIST Centennial]

Industry

  • IBM introduces time sharing and remote access computers [Griffiths]
  • Commercial production of computer chip initiates [Griffiths]

Internet

  • Publication of Leonard Kleinrock, Information Flow in Large Communications Nets, RLE Quarterly Progress Report (July) [PBS Nerds2.0.1] [ACM] [Roberts]

FCC

  • FCC Chairman Newton Minow refers to TV as a "vast wasteland" [Alliance]
  • Frederick Ford (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Newton Minow (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

Legislation

  • Wire Act passed.
1962

Internet

Industry

  • BBN demonstrates computer time-sharing [BBN]
  • AT&T Deploys T1 Digital Lines for first time [Abbate p 16]

FCC

Other

1963

ARPA contracts with UCLA, MIT and BBN [TCMHC]

BBN developes first voice modem, DataDail [BBN]

MCI Founded

FCC

  • National Communications Systems established in response to telephone network failures during Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Newton Minow (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; E William Henry (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
1964

Internet

Industry

  • INTELSAT established [Hughes]
  • IBM releases System 360 mainframe [TCMHC]
  • SABRE air travel computer network goes online for air travel reservations
  • Tymshare Founded [CHM]
1965

Internet

  • ARPA funds first wide-area network built by Larry Roberts and Thomas Marill [TCMHC]
  • ARPA funded JOSS system goes online [TCMHC]

Industry

  • Gordon Moore sets forth Moore's lawPDF [CW]
  • DEC releases PDP-8 minicomputer [TCMHC] [IBM]
  • "AT&T installs the world's first electronic telephone switch (special purpose computer) in a local telephone exchange, Succasunna, NJ." [AT&T]

Government

  • "The Brooks Act of 1965 gave the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)—now the Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)—responsibilities for developing automatic data processing standards and guidelines pertaining to federal computer systems." [2009 Review]
1966

Larry Roberts joins ARPA IPTO, becoming chief scientist [TCMHC]

Merit (Michigan Educational Research Information Triad) established. [Merit History]

FCC

  • FCC initiates Computer Inquiry I.
  • E William Henry (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Rosel Hyde (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
1967


Internet

  • ARPA creates ARPANET plans. [TCMHC]
  • Larry Roberts, Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication, Proceedings of the ACM Gatlinburg Conference (October) [ACM] [Roberts]

Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting

Jef Raskin writes PhD thesis on GUI

Katz v US (4th Amendment applies to people, not places; therefore 4th Amendment applies to private telephone calls)

1968

ARPANET

  • ARPA RFP for construction of first four IMPs on ARPANet (August) [PBS Nerds2.0.1][Roberts]
  • ARPA awards contract to BBN for development of ARPANET IMPs (December) [TCMHC][Roberts]

FCC releases Carterphone decision (CPE)

National Bureau of Standards approved and released FIPS 1, Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) [ITL] "All computers procured by the federal government after mid-1969 had to be capable of using ASCII, which was originally developed by an industry standards committee chaired by a NIST staff member." [NIST Centennial]

Industry

  • AT&T introduces 911 service [AT&T]
  • Steve Jobs meets Steve Wozniak
  • MCI established
  • Intel established by Moore, Robert Noyce, and Andy Grove [CW] [Intel]
1969

Industry

  • Compuserve Founded
  • Intel releases the 1101, first metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) static RAM chip and the 3101 Schotiky bipolar RAM chip [CW] [Intel]
  • FCC approves MCI's 1963 application for operations.

ARPANET

NSF grants $400,000 to MERIT for "Development of a Prototype Network of Computer Services for Self-Instruction and Teaching" [Merit History]

FCC

  • Rosel Hyde (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Dean Burch (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
  • FCC Approves MCI's application to offer service

National Bureau of Standards establishes Center for Computer Science and Technology [ITL]

1970

General

  • ARPANet adopts NCP [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • Network Working Group completes the Network Control Protocol (NCP), network protocol for ARPANet (implementation of NCP completed 1971-72) (December) [TCMHC] [ACM]
  • Alohanet goes online [Nerds]
  • Jon Postel, somewhere around this time, volunteers to manage the networks names and numbers, what will become the IANA function, conducted at ISI UCLA with DARPA funding

Industry

1971

Internet

  • Telnet protocol released by NWG [TCMHC]
  • 23 Host Computers on ARPANet [Griffiths] 15 Nodes on ARPANet [Nerds]
  • First email sent on ARPANet by Ray Tomlinson "testing 1-2-3" sent to himself [Griffiths Email] [BBN]
  • BBN establishes first Network Operations Center (NOC) [BBN]

First Amemdment / Media

Industry

  • Intel releases first microprocesspor, 4004; Intel issues IPO [CW] [Intel]

FCC

1972

ARPANET

  • Release of Jon Postel and Abhay Bhushan, RFC 354, FTP Protocol Specification [Roberts] [Nerds]
  • Robert Kahn, Communications Principles for Operating Systems, Internal BBN Memo [ACM]
  • ARPANet Publicly Demonstrated at International Conference on Computer Communications [Griffiths] [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • Ray Tomlinson (BBN) writes email program for ARPANet, adopting use of @ sign [TCMHC] [ACM]
  • AT&T declines ARPA's offer to take over the ARPANet.
  • Internetworking Working Group organized [Griffiths] [PBS Nerds2.0.1]

Industry

  • Steve Jobs gets a job at Atari
  • AT&T developers C [TCMHC]
  • HBO Starts in New York City . See Cable
  • MCI initiates service, publicly traded.
1973

Internet

  • BBN Encrypts first message over ARPANet [BBN]
  • Bob Kahn joins DARPA [TCMHC]
  • Release of RFC 454: FTP [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • DARPA contracts with Stanford, BBN, and University College of London for work on TCP [TCMHC]
  • Kahn and Cerf present paper on TCP at International Network Working Group meeting [TCMHC]
  • Larry Roberts leaves DARPA, Joins Telenet, first commercial packet switched network; Telenet files application with FCC seeking permission under Title II to operate a communications network
  • Licklider returns to ARPA IPTO as director

Xerox Parc invents distributed computing. Alto personal computer becomes operational. Ethernet invented. [Parc]

Bob Metcalfe competes PhD thesis on Ethernet [PBS Nerds2.0.1]

FCC authorizes MCI to offer foreign exchange service.

1974

Internet

  • Licklider returns to DARPA [TCMHC]
  • Publication of Kahn and Cerf, A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection, IEEE Transactions on Communications Technology (May) [TCMHC] [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • 62 hosts on ARPANet [Nerds p 376]

Industry

  • Telenet opened by Larry Roberts [Griffiths] [PBS Nerds2.0.1] [BBN] FCC approves of Telenet's application to become a common carrier
  • Western Union launches Western I, first domestic communications satellite [WU]
  • MCI and DOJ bring antitrust suits against AT&T
  • Intel releases 8080 microprocessor [Intel]
  • MCI launches Execunet. In 1975 FCC will order MCI to cease Execunet operations. FCC's order will be overturned in 1978.

Dean Burch (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Dick Wiley (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

1975

Internet

  • Administration of ARPANet transferred from DARPA to Defense Communications Agency (aka DISA) [TCMHC] [Nerds p 376]

Industry

  • Microsoft founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. Gates and Allen develop Altair Basic. [CW]
  • HBO begins service [Cable]
  • Sprint launches first public data network [Sprint]
  • Xerox Parc demonstrates GUI [Parc]

FCC

  • George Carlin's Seven Dirty Words routine on Pacifica Radio ("Seven Dirty Words" is currently the name of the Federal Communication Bar Association's ultimate frisbee team) [Pacifica]
  • FCC adopts Part 68 rules, permitting CPE attachments to the telephone network.
1976

Internet

  • Vint Cerf joins ARPA (July) [Nerds p 376]
  • DARPA supports work at UC Berkeley to incorporate TCP/IP into UNIX [TCMHC]
  • Queen Elizabeth sends an email.

FCC

Industry

  • HP turns down Wozniak's proposal for the Apple I computer
  • Commodore turns down Wozniak's proposal for the Apple II computer
  • Wozniak and Jobs begin to produce Apple computers out of a garage. [IBM]
  • Tymnet established as a subsidiary of Tymshare. Offers FCC Tarriffed computer network services. [CHM]

Legislation

1977

Internet

  • "First TCP Operation over ARPANet" (October) [Roberts]
  • 111 Hosts on ARPAnet [Nerds p 377]
  • Tymnet launched [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • BBN developes first Internet routers [BBN]
  • USENET established [IBM]

Industry

  • Apple introduces APPLE II [TCMHC]
  • Apple founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak (Jan 3)
  • Tandy introduces TRS-80 [TCMHC]
  • AT&T installs first fiber optic cable in commercial communications [AT&T]

Dick Wiley (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Charles Ferris (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

National Bureau of Standards approves FIPS 46, Data Encryption Standard (DES) [ITL]

1978

Internet

  • Potentially the first SPAM on the Net, a commercial announcement by DEC promoting the DECSYSTEM 2020 (May 1) [Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978]
  • Vint Cerf, Jon Postel, Danny Cohen, TCP split into TCP/IP (March) [Roberts]

Industry

  • Last manual, non dial, telephone retired [AT&T]
  • Intel releases 8086 microprocessor [CW] [Intel]
1979

Internet

  • Compuserve offers email and tech support for PC users
  • USENET established [Griffiths] [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • USPS attempts to outlaw private email service, retaining message delivery business for itself; this effort is thwarted by the FCC and the US Postal Commissionm.

FCC

  • FCC Grants GTE's application to acquire Telenet
  • FCC asserts jurisdiction over USPS E-COM electronic mail service, and concludes that email is common carriage.
  • FCC Chair Ferris recruits S. J. Lukasik to be FCC Chief Scientist in the Office of Science & Technology (currently the Office of Engineering and Technology); Lukasik was Chief of ARPA from 1971 to 1973. Lukasik meets Michael Marcus at a meeting in Chicago; they had met previously when Marcus administered ARPA R&D projects in nuclear test detection. Lukasik offers Marcus job at FCC. [M Marcus 2008] [Lukasik 1982]

National Bureau of Standards approves FIPS 60, I/O Channel Interface [ITL]

1980

Internet

  • TCP/IP "adopted as a defense standard in 1980, enabling the defense community to begin sharing the DARPA Internet technology base" [ACM]

Industry

  • Apple goes public
  • IBM chooses DOS for use in its PCs [TCMHC]

FCC

1981

Fowler

Internet

  • DARPA Internet Working Group releases RFC 801 setting forth plan to migrate network to TCP/IP [TCMHC]
  • 213 nodes on ARPAnet [Nerds p 377]
  • NSF grant goes to establish CSNET (Computer Science Network) - uses TCP/IP in CSNET [PBS Nerds2.0.1] CSNet established by City University NSF starts CSNET New York [Griffiths]
  • BITNET established [Griffiths] [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • David Clark, Jerome Saltzer, and David Reed, End-to-end architecture
  • IETF RFC 799, Internet Name Domains

Industry

  • IBM selects Intel 8088 microprocessor chip for its PC [CW] [Intel]
  • Osborne releases portable computer [TCMHC]

Judiciary

FCC

  • FCC Releases Spread Spectrum NOI.
  • Charles Ferris (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Robert E Lee (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
  • Robert E Lee (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Mark Fowler (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
1982

FCC

  • Judge Green approves of the Modified Final Judgment providing for divestiture of AT&T
  • Stephen Lukasik departs from the position of FCC Chief Scientist (had been Chief of ARPA from 1971 to 1975).

Internet

  • TCP/IP adopted as protocol suite for ARPANET [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • Release of RFC 819, defining initial top level domain ARPA [Donelan]

Industry

  • USPS Introduces E-COM (messages originate electronically, are printed off at a post office, and delivered in hard copy form; this service would only last 3 years and reportedly lost significant money for USPS)
  • IBM introduces IBM PC
  • Time names computer as "Man of the Year"
  • Intel releases 286 processor [Intel]
1983

Internet

General

  • Bill Gates announces windows, which will not be released for another 4 years.

DNS

  • DNS "designed by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Craig Patridge" November [Roberts] [Nerds p 378]
  • DNS name server developed [PBS Nerds2.0.1]

Industry

  • LLDS established
  • BBN Communications launched [BBN]

FCC

1984

FCC

  • Consent Decree with AT&T goes into effect. AT&T is broken up into AT&T long distance and the Bell Operating Companies. (Jan 1)

Internet

  • DNS introduced. [Griffiths] [PBS Nerds2.0.1] Release of RFC 920,Domain Requirements (adds GOV, EDU, COM, MIL and ORG) (October)[Donelan]
  • AS1 assigned to BBN. There are 35 AS Numbers Assigned.[AS1] AS1 will be acquired by Level 3 in 2004.
  • NSF Launches its Supercomputing program
  • 1000 hosts on Internet 562 hosts on ARPAnet [Nerds p 378]
  • William Gibson in his book Neuromancer reportedly coins the term "cyberspace" [TCMHC]

Legislation

Industry

  • Prodigy Founded
  • Richard Stallman founds GNU Project [IBM]
  • Apple announces macintosh (Jan 24) [TCMHC]
  • IBM develops the 80286-based PC-AT running MS-DOS establishing the IBM PC standard [CW]
  • MCI installed Single Mode Fiber Optic Cable between NYC and WDC

Government

  • "In 1984, Executive Order 12472 re-chartered the National Communication System (NCS) as those telecommunication assets owned or leased by the Federal government that can meet U.S. national security and emergency preparedness needs. The Department of Homeland Security inherited the NCS in 2003." [2009 Review]
1985

Internet

  • "Symbolics.com registered" (Mar. 15) [Donelan] BBN.COM is second commercial domain name registered [BBN]
  • "Berkeley releases BIND" (Apr 1) [Donelan]
  • NSFNET Established, using TCP/IP, AUP prohibited network use for purposes "not in support of research and education." Funded at $200 m 1986-95 [Griffiths] [ACM]
  • "DARPA/DCA implements RFC 920, 921 (U.S.C. §-ISI/SR-NIC)" [Donelan]
  • The WELL goes online at The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link [The Well]
  • October Richard Stallman establishes the Free Software Foundation [Free Software Foundation] [See Open]

Industry

  • Quantum Computer Services (AOL) incorporated, hires Steve Case [Vanity Fair]
  • GE reacquires NBC
  • MS releases Windows 1.0
  • Level3 Founded as Kiewit Diversified Group Inc. (KDG), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Peter Kiewit Sons', Inc. (PKS). [Level3 History]

FCC

1986

Internet

  • Cleveland Freenet established (first freenet) (Jul 16) [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • IETF first meeting [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • Network News Transfer Protocol introduced [IBM]
  • First 'netiquette' guide created [Griffiths Email]
  • NSFNET established [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • 5000 hosts on Internet 562 hosts on ARPAnet [Nerds p 379]
  • NSF signs cooperative agreement with Merit.net for operation of NSFNET [TCMHC]
  • Al Gore introduces National Science Foundation Authorization Act, supporting computer network research [Wiggins]
  • Clifford Stoll of Berkeley, detecting a 75 cent accounting error, uncovers the allegedly Russian sponsored hacker "Hunter" who had been using the Berkeley systems to attack sensitive US information over the network. The investigation of the hacker led to the publication of "The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through The Maze of Computer Espionage (1989)
  • First Interop conference (for vendors implementing TCP/IP) [Roberts]

Industry

  • United Telecom becomes Sprint.
  • Sprint starts long distance service, with its "pin-drop" commercials [Sprint]

Other

  • Brain PC Virus detected (considered the first virus)

Law

  • ECPA signed into law (Oct 21)

FCC

1987

Internet

Industry

FCC

  • Mark Fowler (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Dennis Patrick (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]

National Bureau of Standards approves FIPS 127, Database Language SQL [ITL]

Computer Security Act (PL 100-235) formally assigned to National Bureau Standards responsibility for computer security for unclassified federal systems.

1988

Cybersecurity

Industry

  • First Interop conference (for vendors implementing TCP/IP) (1988)[TCMHC] [ACM]
  • Qwest founded as SP Construction. Lays fiber along all of its railroad ownings.
  • MFS Communications founded [Funding Universe]

Government

  • US Government releases procurement requirement that OSI must be supported in IT [TCMHC]
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (PL 100-418) renamed the National Bureau of Standards to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Legislation

  • Al Gore introduces National High-Performance Computer Technology Act of 1988 [Wiggins]

Internet

  • CSNET and BITNET merged to become Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN) [Living Internet]
  • Publication of Kahn, Towards a National Research Network [Wiggins]
  • IANA funded by DOD DARPA
  • Southern Pacific Telecom established to lay fiber along railroad lines. SP Telecom will become Qwest. Acquired by CenturyLink in 2011. [CenturyTel Timeline]

1989

Sikes

Legislation

Industry

  • "AOL Service Launched for Macintosh and Apple II"
  • "Steve Case wins contest to rename the Quantum online service & America Online is born. The AOL service is launched including e-mail, games, special interest forums, plus a groundbreaking feature allowing AOL members to communicate in one-on-one, real tim [AOL]
  • PSINet founded

Internet

  • NSF, ARPA fund Gigabit Testbed by Kahn and Cerf at CNRI [TCMHC]
  • "Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI mail" [Roberts]
  • World Wide Web developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN [Griffiths] [W3C]
  • First commercial dial up ISP: World world.std.com [PBS Nerds2.0.1] [TheWorld]

FCC

  • Dennis Patrick (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; Alfred Sikes (Republican) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
1990

Internet

FCC

Industry

  • CISCO IPO
  • UUNet launches Alternet
1991

Internet

  • Tim Berners-Lee WWW files made available on The Net via FTP (August) [W3C]
  • NSF assumes control of civilian Internet
  • NSF permits private and commercial access to NSFNET backbone [TCMHC]
  • NSF permits private / commercial+E24 access to NSFNET backbone [Griffiths]
  • Phil Zimmerman releases PGP [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • Mark McCahill releases Gopher [Wiggins]
  • Trojan Room Coffee Pot goes online (first webcam)
  • Linus Torvalds posts Linux kernel to the Internet [Wired]

Industry

FCC

Legislation

  • "Gore Act" passed US High Performance Computing Act creating National Research and Education Network [TCMHC]
1992

Internet

  • 50 websites world wide [Griffiths]
  • ISOC Formed
  • Mark Andreesen develops MOSAIC at University of Illinois

Industry

  • Microsoft releases Windows 3.1 [IBM]

Legislation

  • Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act
  • The Audio Home Recording Act

1993

Legislation

Industry

  • SouthWestern Bell becomes SBC.
  • FleetNet becomes Nextel.
  • Intel introduces the Pentium processor [CW] [Intel]
  • MFS builds first nationwide ATM network. [Funding Universe]

Internet

  • CERN declares that WWW technology will be freely available [W3C] 150 websites world wide [Griffiths]
  • Marc Andreesen's Mosaic Browser released, alpha version while at at National Center for SuperComputing Applications, Illinois [W3C]
  • White House and UN go online [Nerds p 380]
  • NSF creates InterNIC. AT&T awarded contract for directory and database services, Network Solutions Inc awarded contract for DNS registration, General Atomics/CERFNet awarded contract for information services [PBS Nerds2.0.1]
  • IETF sets to work on IPv6

FCC

  • Alfred Sikes (Republican) resigns as FCC Chairman; James Quello (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
  • James Quello (Democrat) resigns as FCC Chairman; Reed Hundt (Democrat) is named as FCC Chairman [FCC]
1994

Internet

FCC

Legislation

Industry

  • Mosaic founded by Marc Andreesen and Jim Clarke (becomes Netscape) [W3C] Netscape 1.0 released
  • "AOL links to Internet for first time" [AOL]
  • Yahoo! (known as Jerry and David's Guide to the WWW) is created [Yahoo!]
  • BBN Planet (ISP) formed [BBN]
  • Amazon incorporated (opens doors for business next year) [Amazon 2009]
1995

Legislation

Internet

Industry

Govt

  • NIST removes GOSIP procurement requirement.
1996

Internet

  • Internet2 formed
  • Xanga, the first blog service, launched

Legislation

DNS

Industry

FCC

  • ACTA files petition at FCC requesting that Internet telephony be regulated under title II (the FCC never closed this proceeding). Voice on the Network Coalition formed in response.

1997

Judicial

DNS

Intellectual Property

Industry

FCC

1998

DNS

Legislation

FCC

Internet

  • "The Internet2 Abilene Network is announced at the White House with Vice President Al Gore, Vint Cerf, and others. The network is made possible through a partnership with Qwest Communications, Cisco Systems, and Nortel Networks." [Internet2 Timeline]
  • IPv6 Standard completed.

Industry

1999

Judicial

  • COPA declared unconstitutional by district court

History

  • CNN interview between Wolf Blitzer and Al Gore in which Gore stated "I took the initiative in creating the Internet." Gore was referring to his support of legislation to fund national information infrastructures such as NSFNET. This quote quickly became [Wiggins]
  • Larry Lessig's, CODE

Legislation

DNS

  • ISI UCLA transfers IANA to ICANN
  • IANA officially announced IPv6 allocations July 14

Cybercrime

  • David Smith enters guilty plea for disseminating the Melissa virus.

Intellectual Property

  • DeCSSS program created.
  • Netscape releases source code and declares it open
  • Napster Created [Pew]

Industry

  • AOL acquired Netscape [AOL]
  • AT&T / TCI Merger (FCC rejects Open Access Arguments)
  • DOCSIS 1.0 Issued by Cablelabs
  • Google removes "Beta" from its website [Google]
  • Cogent starts operations [Cogent]
  • PSINet buys naming rights to the Baltimore Ravens football stadium
  • Qwest acquires US West

VoIP

  • Packetcable VoIP service initiated in Union, NJ. Charter initiates VoIP service in Fitchburg, WI [Cable]

FCC

Literature

2000

Judicial

Internet

  • First Internet election, Arizona democratic primary (Mar 1)
  • COPA Commission released its final report (Oct 20)
  • ITU adopted Recommendation D.50 (ICAIS); USG took a reservation

DNS

  • "Internet2 backbone network deploys IPv6" (May 16)

Industry

FCC

2001

Dot-Com Bubble bursts

Industry

  • AOLTW Merger Completed [AOL]
  • Apple Introduces iPod and iTunes
  • AT&T divests AT&T Wireless
  • AT&T / MediaOne Merger
  • DOCSIS 2.0 Released by Cablelabs
  • Google acquires Deja.com (USENET archive) [Google]
  • PSINet declares bankruptcy
  • Wikipedia Goes Online
  • Cogent acquires Netrail. [Funding Universe]
  • Sprint/MCI merger falls through.
  • WCOM acquires Intermedia Communications / Digex on condition that it sells off Intermedia Backbone

Cybersecurity

Legislation

USG

  • Bush Administration takes digitaldivide.gov offline

FCC

2002

Judicial

  • Supreme Court strikes down the Child Pornography Prevention Act, making illegal virtual kiddie porn, as unconstitutional
  • US District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania ruled that the Children's Internet Protection Act, as it applies to libraries, is facially unconstitutional as a violation of the First Amendment.
  • GulfPower v FCC, (S.Ct) (ruling FCC can set pole attachment rates for Internet over Cable)

Industry

  • SBC Acquires Ameritech.
  • Level3 Acquires Genuity.
  • Vonage initiates service
  • Google News launches [Google]
  • PSINet acquired by Cogent
  • BBN builds first network protected by quantum cryptography [BBN]
  • WCOM divests of Intermedia Backbone, selling it to Allegiance Telecom.

FCC

2003

Judicial

FCC

Legislation

DNS

Industry

  • Blogger.com acquired by Google; Google introduces AdSense [Google]
  • Intel releases Centrino processor with wireless capability built in [Intel]
  • February Level3 acquired Genuity [Level3 History]

Cybersecurity

2004

Industry

  • SBC acquires AT&T Wireless
  • WCOM renames itself MCI
  • Google launches GMail [Google]
  • Verizon divests BBN, which becomes an independent company again. [BBN]
  • Allegiance Telecom, in bankruptcy, is sold to XO

Judicial

FCC

2005

DNS

  • WGIG releases its report on Internet governance.

FCC

Industry

Judicial

  • In FCC v. Brandx, the Supreme Court affirms that the FCC can categorize Internet over cable as an information service.
  • Texas Attorney General files suit against Vonage re 911 service

General

2006

FCC

Industry

Cybercrime

Legislation

Industry

2007

FCC

Industry

  • Level3 acquired Broadwing, the Content Delivery Network (CDN) services business of SAVVIS, Inc. and Servecast. [Level3 History]
2008

FCC

2009

FCC

  • Kevin Martin Resigns as FCC Chairman; Michael Copps is named as Acting FCC Chairman (in the first all hands meeting, as he walked to the podium but before he had said a word, Acting Chairman Copps received a standing ovation from the FCC staff)
  • Julius Genachowski is named as FCC Chairman

USG

  • GSA releases FAR requiring IPv6 compliant products be included in all new IT acquisitions using Internet Protocol

Industry

  • CenturyLink acquires Embarq, changes its name from CenturyTel to CenturyLink [CenturyTel Timeline]
  • Time Warner spins off AOL, undoing the 2001 merger. [TW]
2010

FCC

  • More People get their new online than from traditional print newspapers
2011

FCC

Internet

  • Feb. 3: IANA/ICANN hands out last IPv4 block
  • Sept: Internet Governance Forum Nairobi
  • Steve Jobs, co founder of Apple Computer, dies.
  • Stuxnet Worm attacks Iranian nuclear site

Industry

2012
  • June 30: France terminates Minitel

2013

FCC

  • Ch. Genachowski resigns
  • Mignon Clyburn named acting Chair
  • Thomas Wheeler named FCC Chair
2014

FCC

Left column colors track FCC Chairs. Red for Republicans; Blue for Democrats.

Sources

 

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